Top 10 Graphite-producing Countries (Updated 2023)

Graphite Investing
graphite ore in mine
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Graphite is an important material for the electric vehicle battery industry. What are the top graphite-producing countries?

Graphite is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity and also has the highest strength of any natural material. However, it wasn’t until recently that the metal began to gain popularity.

Interest in graphite mining is increasing in large part because lithium-ion batteries are becoming more common. These batteries are used in everything from phones to electric vehicles (EVs), and graphite is one of their key raw materials. As lithium-ion battery demand grows, graphite demand is also expected to rise from nations around the world.

In fact, despite discussions on changes in lithium-ion battery chemistry, many experts think graphite will remain a key raw material in EV batteries for at least the next decade. Both synthetic and natural graphite, in the form of the intermediate product spherical graphite, are products that are used in the anodes of lithium-ion batteries.


According to Benchmark Mineral Intelligence, demand for graphite from the battery anode segment could increase by seven times in the next decade as surging electric car sales and the energy storage trend continue.

Looking at supply in 2022, China took the top spot for graphite production, with Madagascar and Mozambique coming in second and third, respectively. For any investor following the sector, it will come as no surprise that the Asian country is leading the way — China is known to dominate both the mining and refining sides of the graphite market.

In terms of pricing, different graphite types command different prices, and also have different end uses. However, in general, supply constraints paired with increasing demand from the battery sector have helped natural graphite prices in the past few years, despite several rounds of downward price readjustments.

Read on for a look at the top graphite-producing countries of 2022. All stats are based on the most recent data from the US Geological Survey.

1. China

Mine production: 850,000 MT

As mentioned, China was the world’s largest graphite producer in 2022. It put out 850,000 metric tons (MT) of the metal, significantly higher than the amount it produced in the previous three years. According to the US Geological Survey, the country accounted for 65 percent of world graphite mining in 2022.

China’s stranglehold on the graphite market was strengthened by its quick recovery in graphite production after COVID-19 shutdowns. Around three-quarters of its 2022 graphite production was flake, much of which "was very small, in the +200-mesh range," notes the US Geological Survey. "China also processed most of the world’s spherical graphite."

2. Madagascar

Mine production: 170,000 MT

Madagascar produced significantly more graphite in 2022 than it has in previous years, rising from the fifth spot in 2021 to rank as the second largest graphite-producing country last year. The African nation also has the fourth largest graphite reserves. According to the US Geological Survey, large graphite deposits are being developed in this island country in the Indian Ocean.

Growth in Madagascar’s graphite-mining industry includes new projects with the potential to come online in the near future, including NextSource Materials' (TSX:NEXT,OTCQB:NSRCF) Molo graphite project, which is on track to begin production in 2023.

3. Mozambique

Mine production: 110,000 MT

Mozambique takes the third spot on the list with graphite output of 110,000 MT in 2022. The country is home to two main graphite miners: Syrah Resources (ASX:SYR,OTC Pink:SYAAF) and Triton Minerals (ASX:TON). Sydney-based Syrah Resources’ Balama project is the world’s largest integrated natural graphite-mining and processing operation.

The US Geological Survey states that "Africa has been a recent focus for graphite exploration, with projects under development in Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, and Tanzania."

4. Brazil

Mine production: 87,000 MT

Brazil was the world’s second largest graphite producer in 2021 with output of 82,000 MT during the period. Brazil’s 2022 graphite-mining output increased by 5,000 MT from 2021; however, it wasn't enough for the South America nation to hang onto its second place status as Madagascar and Mozambique saw much larger gains in their graphite output.

Brazil has the second highest graphite reserves by country and is the third most important battery metals jurisdiction in the world. Little information is available about the Brazilian graphite-mining industry, as the country’s top producers of the metal are private. However, the nation has become a hot spot for graphite exploration and development. One project South Star Battery Metals' (TSXV:STS,OTCQB:STSBF) Santa Cruz large-flake graphite property, where commercial production is planned for Q4 2023.

5. South Korea

Mine production: 17,000 MT

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, made it onto this list of the top graphite-producing countries by increasing its output of the metal from 10,500 MT of graphite in 2021 to 17,000 MT in 2022.

The increased graphite production is in line with the South Korean government's goal of becoming a leader in the global EV battery market and transitioning away from reliance on China for its graphite requirements.

6. Russia and Canada

Mine production: 15,000 MT

In 2022, Russia and Canada tied for the title of sixth largest graphite producer. Russia’s graphite output remained flat from its 2021 level. The country, previous to the Russia-Ukraine war, was expected to significantly increase its production during the next several years due to the implementation of two investment projects, Dalgraphite and Uralgraphite.

Canada’s graphite production rose by 3,000 MT in 2022 over the previous year. Interest in Canada as a source of graphite has been rising for the past few years, particularly since Tesla (NASDAQ:TSLA) said it plans to source the lithium, graphite and cobalt it needs for its Nevada-based lithium-ion battery gigafactory from North America. The Lac des Iles mine is the only mine in Canada that is producing graphite, but there are a number of graphite projects under development.

7. Norway

Mine production: 10,000 MT

Norway’s graphite output rose from 6,290 MT in 2021 to 10,000 MT in 2022.

All graphite deposits in the country contain flake graphite and are generally low tonnage. That said, many are in favorable locations — for example, close to the sea or to the electrical grid.

8. India

Mine production: 8,300 MT

India’s graphite output last year came to 8,300 MT, a jump of 1,300 MT over 2021's amount. The country’s reserves vary widely from state to state, with Arunachal Pradesh holding nearly half of India’s graphite reserves.

The graphite-mining country has eight main producers, including Tirupati Carbons & Chemicals, Chotanagpur Graphite Industries and Carbon & Graphite Products. HEG (NSE:HEG,BSE:509631) is a leading, although small-scale, graphite electrode producer.

9. North Korea

Mine production: 8,100 MT

North Korea's total graphite output last year came to 8,100 MT, the same amount it put out in 2021. The country's reserves of the commodity stand at 1.8 million MT. Little further information is available on graphite mining in North Korea.

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Resource for real-time news updates!

Securities Disclosure: I, Melissa Pistilli, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.

Editorial Disclosure: NextSource Materials and South Star Battery Metals are clients of the Investing News Network. This article is not paid-for content.

The Conversation (10)
Martin Ebeling
01 Aug, 2023

"Big Graphite Resources" do not mean that you can produce at market price, even if demand is constant or increasing. You have to think about politics, infrastructure, environmental situation, mining and production cost in the country and ( very important ) the percentage of graphite in the ore.

If you need an Expert in Natural Graphite please let me know.

Martin Ebeling, Senior Adviser. marebe888@gmail.com

Murray Johnson
15 Aug, 2019
You have omitted the highest grade graphite deposit in the world owned by ASX Talga Resources with mines in Sweden with advanced patented research and technology particularly in anode production and with a patented and vastly cheaper graphene production process.
Rod Tydeman
05 Jan, 2019
Investors should be looking at Eagle Graphite...they may be pleasantly surprised.
Mus Shamkhalov
23 Sep, 2018
Hello dear sirs. To my great regret, I did not see Krasnoyarskgrafit from Russia in the graphite producers' lists. The company has the largest amorphous graphite deposit in Russia. The reserves are 1 million tons. Sales of 3000 to 6000 tons per year. During the USSR, 40000-70000 tons per year. The Kureiskoye deposit has been known since the 18th century.
Sait Uysal
03 Jan, 2018
Related to Turkey and generally for graphite, to reach the right information is really hard. Quantities related to Turkey don't represent the realities. You can check for details; https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/fact-beyond-numbers-turkey-graphite-production-statistics-sait-uysal/
Sait Uysal
03 Jan, 2018
Related to Turkey and generally for graphite, to reach the right information is really hard. Quantities related to Turkey don't represent the realities. You can check for details; https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/fact-beyond-numbers-turkey-graphite-production-statistics-sait-uysal/
stan litvin
11 Apr, 2016
in Russia the figure is overstated by 45-50% percent (or get here artificial carbon and waste of metallurgical companies). At the same time Ukraine did not mention that produced and sold 13.8 thousand tons in 2015 (Flake). According to other possible true, but for investors, it would be better to separate the concept of graphite to amorphous and flake because these are two separate markets and amorphous to lithium-ion batteries do not has nothing in common.
stan litvin
11 Apr, 2016
in Russia the figure is overstated by 45-50% percent (or get here artificial carbon and waste of metallurgical companies). At the same time Ukraine did not mention that produced and sold 13.8 thousand tons in 2015 (Flake). According to other possible true, but for investors, it would be better to separate the concept of graphite to amorphous and flake because these are two separate markets and amorphous to lithium-ion batteries do not has nothing in common.
Atanu Gupta
08 Apr, 2016
Very good overview
Atanu Gupta
08 Apr, 2016
Very good overview

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