The Lifecycle of a Mine: Birth to Death

- July 15th, 2020

How are mines built? And what happens when they are depleted? The lifecycle of a mine includes five main stages to be aware of.

One of the key processes that investors interested in the mining industry should understand is how mines are built. Each step in the lifecycle of a mine may take years, and these different processes all involve different levels of investment risk.

The early stages in the lifecycle of a mine are particularly risky. Junior miners are still a long way from production, and will face many obstacles before they get there. However, even this type of mining company can be a good investment for those who do their due diligence and ask the right questions.

With that in mind, here’s an overview of the lifecycle of a mine. There are five main stages: prospecting and exploration, assessment and approval, construction, production, closure and reclamation.


Profit from resource markets this year

Read our new report to get started!

1. Prospecting and exploration

Prospecting and exploration are precursors to mining and development and often happen at the same time. Historically, prospectors would explore a region on foot with a pick and a shovel as mining methods looking for metals, but today there are more high-tech methods that mining companies can use when searching a region for mineral deposits. Prospecting can take anywhere from one to two years.

During mineral exploration, experts like geologists use additional techniques to determine the possible size and value of the mineral deposit discovered during prospecting. Exploration involves sampling, mapping, diamond drilling and other work. This stage is estimated to last between three and 14 years depending on the project. It generally involves data collection for environmental impact studies and the completion of a mineral resource estimate.

2. Assessment and approval

Once prospecting and exploration are finished, deposit details and environmental and socioeconomic information collected during exploration are used to plan and design a mine.

Companies only build mines if they are sure they have found a deposit valuable enough to justify the money they will have to spend to bring it into production. Costs they will need to cover relate to mine design and construction, operational expenses, plus mine closure and reclamation expenses.

To discover whether the deposit they have found is economic, companies generally complete several technical studies. These studies include preliminary economic assessments, along with prefeasibility and a feasibility studies. All three analyze and assess the same geological, engineering and economic factors, but the level of detail and precision is significantly different.


Introducing Our NEW Gold Outlook Report

BURSTING With Exclusive Information Not Found Anywhere Else. Don't Get Left Behind!
Grab Your FREE Gold Report Today!

In general, it takes two to three years for mining companies to amass this data.

During this part of the lifecycle of a mine, companies will also usually look to secure various permits, a process that can take one to three years or even longer. They also tend to spend time raising money to support these expensive and high-risk steps.

3. Construction

All of the preliminary and technical reports completed during the first two stages of the lifecycle of a mine serve as tools that provide companies with the information they need to make intelligent and strategic decisions regarding the development of a project. Once they have all of this information, they will decide if they will go ahead with the mine construction phase.

The construction process occurs after research, permitting and approvals have all been completed. Building a mine site can involve setting up roads, mining processing facilities, environmental management systems, employee housing and other facilities.

4. Production

Once the construction phase is finished, the mine begins to produce. Production usually last from 10 to 30 years, but in some cases can continue for even longer than that. Mine production involves the extraction of ore, separation of minerals, disposal of waste and shipment of product.


BRAND NEW! Take Advantage Of Silver On The Rise Before It's Too Late

Everything You Need To Watch The Dollars Come Pouring In!

The two most common methods of mining are surface and underground mining. Companies determine what type of extraction to do based on the characteristics of their mineral deposit and the limits imposed by safety and technology, as well as environmental and economical concerns.

Mine production involves three main stages:

  • Processing: At this point of the mining process, ore is treated to separate valuable minerals from waste rock.
  • Recovering minerals: Also called mineral extraction. This is the process of extracting ore from rock using different tools and machinery.
  • Smelting: This process involves melting concentrate to extract metals like zinc, copper or precious metals from ore.

5. Reclamation

Once a mine site has been exhausted, the process of closure occurs; this stage involves dismantling all facilities on the property. Reclamation then begins, allowing the land to return to its original state. This last phase can take anywhere from one to 10 years.

Mining of resources involves the temporary use of land, and as the lifecycle of a mine finishes, the goal of reclamation is for areas affected by mining activity to once again host self-sustaining ecosystems that provide a healthy environment for fish, wildlife and humans.

This is an updated version of an article first published by the Investing News Network in 2013.

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Resource for real-time news updates!

Securities Disclosure: I, Melissa Pistilli, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.


Fear And Debt Push Gold To New Heights In 2020. What's Coming In 2021?

All The Answers You NEED In Our Precious Metals Outlook Report!
Grab Your FREE Report Today!

Get the latest Resource Investing stock information

Get the latest information about companies associated with Resource Investing Delivered directly to your inbox.

Resource Investing

Select None
Select All

Leave a Reply