To make informed decisions, investors should be aware of the many molybdenum uses. Here’s a brief overview of five key applications.
Molybdenum metal has a high melting point of 4,730 degrees Fahrenheit, a characteristic that allows for many varied uses. The metal is usually sold as a gray powder, which is compressed under high pressure to make products like alloying agents and catalysts for the chemical industry.
China, Chile and the US are the three largest producers of molybdenum, and supply of molybdenum is expected to support molybdenum prices. The metal has fared poorly in recent years, but analysts are optimistic that its performance will improve on demand from renewable energytechnologies and a rebound in the steel industry.
To better understand molybdenum’s prospects moving forward, it's important for investors to be aware of the major molybdenum uses. Here’s a brief overview of five.
Structural steel accounts for 35 percent of molybdenum use. Molybdenum improves the strength of steel at high temperatures, and can allow steel to withstand pressures of up to 300,000 pounds per square inch. Molybdenum also helps with corrosion resistance, which is helpful for steel used in pipelines or marine environments.
Another 25 percent of molybdenum is used in stainless steel alloys for pharmaceutical and chemical mills, as well as tanker trucks. Molybdenum is also alloyed with steel to produce drills, saws, jet engines and power-generation turbines. Chrome and molybdenum alloy steel sheets are used in mufflers and other automotive parts.
Additionally, molybdenum is alloyed with cast iron to produce cylinder heads, motor blocks and exhaust manifolds, which allow vehicle engines to run hotter and thereby reduce carbon emissions. Another use is in milling and crushing equipment.
Molybdenum uses can also be chemical. About 14 percent of molybdenum is used in the chemical industry for catalysts and lubricants. For example, the metal is used as a catalyst in petroleum refineries to help remove sulfur from natural gas and refined petroleum products. The process, known as hydrodesulfurization, involves heat and pressure plus a molybdenum oxide catalyst with an alumina support and cobalt.
Occasionally nickel and molybdenum are used instead of cobalt to treat more difficult feedstock. Low-sulfur fuels are cleaner burning, and many countries, including Canada and the US, require vehicles to use ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel for road vehicles. Molybdenum also acts as a catalyst in polymer and plastic production.
Molybdenum is combined with sulfur to form molybdenum disulfide, which helps lubricate two stroke engines, bicycle coaster brakes, bullets, ski waxes and more. It is also used in greases for ball and roller bearings in the manufacturing, mining and transportation industries.
Molybdenum disulfide can resist heat and pressure because it is of geothermal origin. Oil-soluble molybdenum-sulfur compounds thiophosphate and thiocarbamate protect engines against wear, oxidation and corrosion.
Molybdate orange pigment is made using lead, lead chromate, lead molybdate and lead sulfate. The paint withstands fading in light and weathering over time. Aside from that, molybdenum oranges are used in paints, inks, plastic and rubber products and ceramics.
Molybdenum is an essential component of nitrogenase, which is found in nitrogen-fixing bacteria that make nitrogen from the air available to plants. Sodium molybdate is a white crystalline powder used as a fertilizer for plants such as cauliflower and beans to increase crop yields.
This is an updated version of an article first published by the Investing News Network in 2017.
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Securities Disclosure: I, Melissa Pistilli, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.
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