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top tantalum producing countries

Tantalum is certainly an important component in many modern technologies. It is used in capacitors for everything from computers to mobile phones.

However, the metal is also known for issues related to conflict minerals, since a large portion of tantalum production comes from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Looking elsewhere in the world, the US has not produced tantalum since 1959, according to the US Geological Survey (USGS), but the metal is still processed by US companies who import it from outside producers.

Here are the top eight tantalum-producing countries from 2015, as per the most recent statistics from the USGS:

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1. Rwanda

Mine Production: 600 metric tons

Rwanda produces the majority of the world’s tantalum, but their standing is fraught with controversy. It is an open secret that much of the Rwanda’s mineral production arrives from other countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2012, the Securities and Exchange Commission instituted new rules that force companies to disclose when they use minerals from conflict zones in their products. As a result, Congolese miners generally sell their wares to neighboring countries that do not carry the stigmas associated with mining in the Congo, according to a report from Bloomberg.

For this reason, it is difficult to ascertain how much tantalum is actually produced by Rwandan mines. However, one company, Better Sourcing, is aiming to make the Rwandan mining industry more transparent.

2. Congo

Mine Production: 200 metric tons

The Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the world’s biggest tantalum producers, and the metal is just a small part of the country’s valuable mineral resources. National Geographic estimated that Congo produces up to 50 percent of the world’s tantalum, though the country came a distant second to Rwanda last year in terms of production.

Mining practices in the country have a stigma of being being unethical and corrupt, and the SEC rule aimed at discouraging the use of conflict minerals does not seem to have diminished Congo’s production of tantalum. The nature of mining in the Congo makes it impossible to know what tantalum reserves the country possesses, but it’s likely that tantalum production and the controversy surrounding it will continue in the Congo for years to come.

3. Brazil

Mine Production: 150 metric tons

Brazil is the largest tantalum producing country outside of Africa. Overall, Brazil is home to 36,000 tons of tantalum reserves.

The country’s largest tantalum mine is the MIBRA project, owned by Advanced Metallurgical Group N.V. (AMS:AMG). In light of issues facing tantalum from Rwandan and Congolese suppliers, Brazil has the potential to become a major source of tantalum for companies around the world in the coming years. In 2015, the country was the largest supplier of tantalum minerals to the US, accounting for 40 percent of imports.

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4. China

Mine Production: 60 metric tons

China is a major tantalum producer and is the biggest supplier of tantalum metal to US companies. Almost 30 percent of the tantalum metal exported to the US comes from China according to the USGS, and the country’s production has held steady year over year.

5. Australia

Mine Production: 50 metric tons

Rounding out the list of top tantalum producers was Australia, with 50 metric tons of production. With an estimated 67,000 metric tons of tantalum reserves, Australia holds even more of the metal than Brazil.

The Greenbushes mine in Australia, known mainly for its lithium production, is also one of the world's largest hard rock tantalum resources.

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Securities Disclosure: I, Teresa Matich, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.

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This article is updated each year. Please see the top of the page for the most recent information.

(April 14 2015)

Widely used in capacitors for computers and mobile phones, tantalum is certainly an important component in many modern technologies.

However, the metal is also known for issues related to conflict minerals, since a large portion of tantalum production comes from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Looking elsewhere in the world, the US has not produced tantalum since 1959, according to the US Geological Survey (USGS), but the metal is still processed by US companies who import it from outside producers.

Here are the top eight tantalum-producing countries from 2014, as reported by the USGS:

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1. Rwanda

Mine Production: 250

Rwanda produces the majority of the world’s tantalum, but their standing is fraught with controversy. It is an open secret that much of the Rwanda’s mineral production arrives from other countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2012, the Securities and Exchange Commission instituted new rules that force companies to disclose when they use minerals from conflict zones in their products. As a result, Congolese miners generally sell their wares to neighboring countries that do not carry the stigmas associated with mining in the Congo, according to a report from Bloomberg.

For this reason, it is difficult to ascertain how much tantalum is actually produced by Rwandan mines.

2. Congo

Mine Production: 180 tons

The Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the world’s biggest tantalum producers, and the metal is just a small part of the country’s valuable mineral resources. National Geographic estimated that Congo produces up to 50 percent of the world’s tantalum, though mining practices in the country are known for being unethical and corrupt.

The SEC rule aimed at discouraging conflict mineral does not seem to have diminished Congo’s production of tantalum, as production in 2014 represented a 10-ton increase over the previous year. The nature of mining in the Congo makes it impossible to know what tantalum reserves the country possesses, but it’s likely that tantalum production and the controversy surrounding it will continue in the Congo for years to come.

3. Brazil

Mine Production: 98 tons

Brazil is the largest tantalum producing country that does not have the stigma of conflict mining. Overall, Brazil is home to 36,000 tons of tantalum reserves.

The country’s largest tantalum mine is the MIBRA project, owned by Advanced Metallurgical Group N.V. (AMS:AMG). In light of issues facing tantalum from Rwandan and Congolese suppliers, Brazil has the potential to become a major source of tantalum for companies around the world in the coming years.

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4. Mozambique

Mine Production: 85 tons

Tantalum production in Mozambique dropped over the past year, as the country produced 115 tons of the metal in 2013, and just 85 tons in 2014. The largest licensed tantalum project in the country is the Muiane Project, which is wholly owned by Pacific Wildcat Resources (TSXV:PAW). According to MBendi information services, the Muiane Project is Mozambique’s most developed tantalum source.

5. China

Mine Production: 60 tons

China is a major tantalum producer and is the biggest supplier of tantalum metal to US companies. Almost 30 percent of the tantalum metal exported to the US comes from China according to the USGS, and the country’s production has held steady year over year.

6. Nigeria

Mine Production: 60 tons

Tying with China in terms of annual tantalum production was Nigeria. The country is thought to harbor large reserves of the mineral, but unfortunately, development efforts have been stymied by continued conflicts in the country.

7. Ethiopia

Mine Production: 40 tons

Ethiopia ramped up tantalum production significantly in the past year, with output increasing from 8 tons annually to 40 in just 12 months. Weak results from 2013 reflect a mine shutdown that occurred due to high levels of uranium in the available tantalum. Production is likely to increase further as companies expand mining efforts at the Kenticha Tantalite Deposit, according to the Ethiopian Ministry of Mines.

8. Burundi

Mine Production 14 tons

Rounding out the top eight is Burundi. The country borders Rwanda and Congo, and Newsweek reported minerals from the country are often sourced from conflict mines.

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This article is updated each year. Please see the top of the page for the most recent information.

(June 23 2014)

Back in 2010, the European Union’s Ad-Hoc Working Group on Defining Critical Raw Materials published its first criticality analysis for raw materials. Its goal was fairly simple: to define the raw materials critical to the EU’s economy and from there “manage responses to raw materials issues at an EU level.”

The group ultimately concluded that of the 41 non-energy, non-agricultural materials it looked at, 14 qualified as critical raw materials. Those were: antimony, gallium, magnesium, tantalum, beryllium, germanium, niobium, tungsten, cobaltgraphiteplatinum-group metals, fluorspar, indium and rare earths.

Of course, a lot can change in little time, especially in the resource space. That’s why the Ad-Hoc Working Group is committed to reviewing and updating its list of critical raw materials at least every three years. Accordingly, in 2013 it began work on a new report that was ultimately released last month.

For those involved in the tantalum space, the most important change is that tantalum, now deemed to have “a lower supply risk,” has been taken off the list. As the report explains, when the 2010 report was published, Australia, which has an “excellent governance rating,” was not producing tantalum due to low prices, with the result being that the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), whose governance rating is “poor,” was supplying much of the world’s tantalum.

As of 2013, Australia was still not producing tantalum; however, in the past few years Brazil has “emerged as an important tantalum supplier,” balancing out the risk associated with the DRC.

To find out which other countries are significant tantalum producers, Tantalum Investing News took a look at 2013 tantalum production figures from the US Geological Survey. Below is a list of those countries, along with a little background information on each nation.

1. Rwanda

Mine production: 150 MT

Rwanda’s 2013 tantalum production came to 150 MT, the same amount it put out in 2012. The African country has a reputation for being a top producer of the metal — in 2011, it accounted for 15 percent of world tantalum mine production, according to another USGS report.

Bloomberg reported last month that Rwanda has recently been promoting the fact that its tantalum is conflict free. That’s largely because companies registered with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) have been preparing to disclose whether they are receiving tantalum, tungstentin and gold from the DRC, its neighbor.

2. Brazil

Mine production: 140 MT

In the past, Tantalum Investing News has described Brazil as “the silent king of tantalum.” The moniker comes from the fact that despite being the world’s second-largest tantalum producer, the nation generally remains outside the media spotlight and away from “issues surrounding conflict minerals or mine closings and reopenings.”

Brazil is also one of only two countries whose tantalum reserves are listed by the USGS. They sit at 36,000 MT, behind Australia at 62,000 MT.

3. Democratic Republic of the Congo

Mine production: 110 MT

Mention the DRC and for many what comes to mind is conflict minerals. As mentioned, the US is trying to change that perception by forcing companies to disclose whether they’re receiving tantalum and other metals from that country.

While that’s a good idea in theory, skepticism is rife about whether disclosure will end up being useful. Most recently, concerns have been voiced about the fact that companies don’t have to reveal which of their products aren’t conflict free. Tom Quaadman, vice president of the US Chamber of Commerce, is quoted as saying in a Wall Street Journal article, “[w]hen I did math in school I had to do the work and show the answer. What has happened now is companies have to show their work and not their answer.”

4. Nigeria

Mine production: 60 MT

Nigeria has produced tantalum for decades, and though the USGS doesn’t list its reserves of the metal, they are believed to be substantial. Interestingly, however, it’s artisanal miners that give them the most attention.

A recent editorial in Nigerian publication Punch reveals that it’s not just tantalum that’s neglected in the country — in fact, mining contributes only 0.3 percent of its GDP. “We need to amend the 1999 Constitution to allow states to control their own minerals and reduce the destructive dependence on oil,” the publication states.

5. Canada

Mine production: 50 MT

Canada is not a tantalum powerhouse like Rwanda and Brazil are, but that could change within the next few years, Chris Grove, director of Commerce Resources (TSXV:CCE), told Tantalum Investing News last year.

He explained that all of the deposits in Brazil, a top tantalum producer, are carbonatites. There is also high carbonatite activity in British Columbia and Quebec, and it potentially represents hundreds of years of supply.

6. Mozambique

Mine production: 40 MT

Mozambique’s Alto Ligonha pegmatite belt hosts historic tantalum mines. One of them, Marropino, was recently closed, according to allAfrica. Another, called Muiane, is owned by Pacific Wildcat Resources (TSXV:PAW). The company notes on its website that it is “currently working on a potential financing option to allow the addition of a spiral circuit at Muiane to allow operations to recommence.”

7. Burundi

Mine production: 30 MT

Tantalum is mined in Burundi by privately owned Comptoir Minier des Exploitations du Burundi (COMEBU), a 2011 USGS report on the country states. It operates at Kabarore in Kayanza Province, while artisanal miners work “at various sites in Kayanza, Kirundo, and Ngozi Provinces.”

Exploration completed by COMEBU about a decade ago places Kabarore’s niobium-tantalite reserves at an estimated 4,400 MT.

8. Ethiopia

Mine production: 10 MT

While tantalum mining has been profitable for Ethiopia in the past, production and export of the metal was suspended in June 2012 until such time as the country has set up its own refining plant.

The reason, Metal Bulletin explains, is that the uranium content of its raw tantalum “has increased to such high levels that it has become impossible to ship it in raw form.” A plant would remove that risk and also allow the country to derive greater value from the metal, but a 2013 USGS report indicates that no refinery has yet been built.

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Securities Disclosure: I, Charlotte McLeod, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.

Related reading: 

New EU Critical Raw Materials Report Has “Disadvantages”: Roskill

Tantalum in Africa

Brazil on Top of the Tantalum Game

Canada: A Tantalum Producer in the Making?

This article is updated each year. Please see the top of the page for the most recent information.

Commodity Focus – Tantalum

GMF- Resource Calculator reports on the commodity, Tantalum. Of these 4 minerals, of tantalum is in the position of being he greatest concern due to the fact that in the last 10 years ever increasing amounts of conflict tantalum has entered the western world, while recently there have also been

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Price retreats in aluminum and palladium became newsworthy following the considerable headline story of Afghanistan’s potential of $1 trillion of untapped mineral deposits including critical industrial metals such as iron, copper, and cobalt; in addition to strategic resources like lithium, rare earth deposits of niobium and large deposits of gold.

Tantalum Capacitor Producers: Industrial Overview

The largest application for tantalum is in the electronics capacitor industry, totaling approximately 68 percent of global demand. Although tantalum consumption in the United States in 2009 was estimated to decrease by about 5 percent from the previous year, a large manufacturer of passive electronic components sees a very

Element
By Melissa Pistilli—Exclusive to Tantalum Investing News
Element and Historical Information

Tantalum (Ta) is a chemical element with the atomic number 73 and is named after the Greek mythological figure Tantalus. First discovered in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg, tantalum was first produced in metallic form in 1864. Prior to tungsten, metallic tantalum was used as filament in light bulbs. The rare, hard metal is blue-gray in colour.

Some of its other special qualities include:

  • Excellent capacity to store and release an electrical charge
  • Exceedingly high melting point of about 3,000° C
  • Highly corrosion-resistant
  • Alloys well with other metals
  • Superconductive for electricity

A member of the refractory metals group, it occurs in the mineral tantalite and is always found with the very similar element niobium (Nb). When more tantalum than niobium is present it is called tantalite; when more niobium than tantalum is present it is called columbite (or niobite). In Africa, tantalum is known as coltan.

Occurrence

Tantalum ores occur mainly in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Africa nations including the Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Gabon, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa and Uganda; and to a lesser extent Ta is also found in southeast Asia.

Major Uses

Tantalum is mainly used in electronic components such as capacitors and some high-power resistors in everyday items like cell phones, personal and laptop computers, digital and video cameras, LCD/Plasma televisions, and handheld gaming devices.

When alloyed with other metals tantalum is used in fabricating carbide tools for metalworking equipment, jet engine components, chemical process equipment, nuclear reactors and missile parts.

It’s also widely used in automotive electronics such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS), navigation systems, wheel traction control, airbag inflation, engine management and fuel economy.

Other uses include:

  • Fabrication of surgical instruments and implants
  • Chemical reaction vessels and pipes for corrosive liquids
  • Heat exchanging coils
  • Fabrication of high refractive index glass for camera lenses
  • Production of vacuum furnace parts
  • Fabrication of components for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, airplanes and missiles

Supply/Demand Fundamentals

Since 1995, demand for tantalum has grown on average by about 8 to 12 per cent every year, increasing exploration projects globally.

Supply is quickly coming under pressure since the United States Defense Logistics Agency (USDLA) curbed stockpile sales, which had previously flooded the market. Adding further distress, Australia’s major tantalum operation, responsible for 30 per cent of global supply, shut down in 2008. The Great Lakes region of Central Africa has become a focal point of supply production; however the bloody political strife in the DRC, of which tantalum plays a financial role, may cause the world to look elsewhere for its tantalum supplies.

Pricing

The supply/demand fundamentals for tantalum are becoming much more price positive. Tantalum does not trade in spot markets, but rather in negotiated markets with long-term fixed contracts. Interestingly, it’s considered taboo in the tantalum industry to publicly discuss contract prices.

Supply Chain

The handful of actual tantalum producers sell their ore to just a few processors, which operate in China, Estonia, Germany, Japan, Kazakhstan and the US. Once processed, the product for electronic goods consumption is then sold to capacitor manufacturers such as Kemet Electronics, AVX, Samsung and Vishay, who then sell those capacitors to companies like Apple (iPod), Sony (Playstation), Research in Motion (Blackberry), Panasonic, Nintendo (Wii), Cisco Systems Inc, Hewlett-Packard and IBM.

Conflict Controversy

The violent political conflict in the Congo has unfortunately been funded in large part by conflict minerals like gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum. The guerrilla and so-called military soldiers using what amounts to slave labour to mine tantalum ore has made central Africa a cheap place to acquire the mineral, making it stiff competition for other producing regions.

However, concerned NGO’s, local and international government officials, industry leaders and even electronics consumers are putting pressure on the tantalum industry to ensure conflict minerals are not making their way into consumer products. The hope is that by cutting off the demand for conflict minerals, the militias will lose the ability to finance their murder, rape and pillaging of the region’s people and resources.

Two of the most vocal groups calling for action are Global Witness (instrumental in bringing about the Kimberley Process, which has helped to curtail the blood diamond trade) and the Enough Project founded by the Center for American Progress.

Investing in Tantalum

Tantalum is a hot investment right now because its supply/demand fundamentals are strong and it offers investors the opportunity to make a difference in the world. The conflict in the Congo and the pressure from organizations like Global Witness and international agencies like the UN to halt the traffic of conflict minerals is expected to place huge downward pressure on supply at the same time that demand for tantalum products is heating up.

The tantalum mining sector is a tight industry with few major players and there now exists opportunity for juniors operating in conflict free zones to establish a foothold in the market. According to Sam Kiri, director at Proactive Investors North America, “the tantalum industry is experiencing a transitional period on a number of fronts and there exists only a handful of emerging companies poised to take advantage.”

Investing in and building up the conflict-free tantalum industry will help put the pressure on those companies still purchasing conflict minerals to clean up their act and will hopefully help to eventually end the atrocities occurring on a daily basis in the region.

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