Top Lithium-producing Countries

Here's a look at the world's top lithium-producing countries of 2016.

lithium-producing countries

It’s no secret that the lithium sector continues to grow rapidly, and that’s largely because the metal is a key component of lithium-ion batteries.

Lithium-ion batteries are used in portable electronic devices, electric tools and more, but today they’re best known for being an energy source for electric vehicles. Electric vehicles are becoming increasingly common, spurred on by the work of Tesla Motors (NASDAQ:TSLA) and other car companies, and demand for lithium is increasing in tandem.

The latest data from the US Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the world’s top lithium-producing countries are doing their best to meet that growing demand. Worldwide lithium production rose 12 percent from 2015 to 2016, coming in at 35,000 metric tons (MT) last year.

Read on for a brief overview of the eight countries that produced the most lithium last year. If the electric vehicle market continues to grow in the future, it’s likely that they will produce even more of the metal in years to come.

You can also click here to see our list of the top lithium-producing companies of 2015.

1. Australia

Mine production: 14,300 MT

As in 2015, Australia was the world’s top lithium producer in 2016. It produced 14,300 MT of the metal last year, up 200 MT from the year before.

Australia hosts the Greenbushes lithium project, operated by Talison Lithium, a subsidiary jointly owned by China’s Tianqi Group and Albemarle (NYSE:ALB). Greenbushes is recognized as the longest continuously operating mining area in Western Australia, having been in operation for over 25 years.

Australia also holds over 2 million MT of identified lithium resources, according to the USGS. It is worth noting that most of the country’s lithium is exported to China as spodumene, although in 2016 there was a shortage of imports from Australia to China.

2. Chile

Mine production: 12,000 MT

Chile ranked second for lithium production again in 2016, increasing its production from 10,500 MT in 2015 to 12,000 MT last year.

As per the USGS, SQM (NYSE:SQM), a top lithium producer in Chile, ramped up production in 2016 by 20 percent. The Chilean government also gave Albemarle (NYSE:ALB), another lithium powerhouse in the country, permission to increase its lithium brine extraction.

Unlike Australia, where lithium is extracted from hard-rock mines, Chile’s lithium is found in brines below the surface of salt flats. The Atacama salt flat in Chile hosts roughly 37 percent of the world’s entire lithium production.

3. Argentina

Mine production: 5,700 MT

Lithium production in Argentina significantly increased in 2016, reaching 5,700 MT; that’s up from 3,600 MT in 2015. The USGS notes that the increase was largely due to a new brine operation.

It’s well known that Bolivia, Argentina and Chile make up the “lithium triangle.” Argentina’s Salar del Hombre Muerto district hosts significant lithium brines, while its reserves are sufficient for at least 75 years. At present, lithium mining in the country shows no signs of slowing down. According to Reuters, lithium carbonate production in Argentina will triple by 2019, and has the potential to grow even more if companies are successful in obtaining funding for their projects.

4. China

Mine production: 2,000 MT

China came fourth for lithium production in 2016, the same position it held the year before. It produced 2,000 MT both years.

While lithium production in China is relatively low, the country is the largest consumer of lithium as a result of its electronics manufacturing and electric vehicle industries. At the end of December 2016, the country allegedly had 44,874 new electric cars, though that’s below expectations of 60,000.

China now gets most of its lithium from Australia, but is looking to expand its lithium capacity in the future. The USGS says that China’s lithium resources stand at approximately 7 million MT.

5. Zimbabwe

Mine production: 900 MT

For the third year in a row, lithium production in Zimbabwe remained at 900 MT. The country’s privately owned Bikita Minerals allegedly holds the world’s largest-known deposit of lithium, at over 11 MT.

6. Portugal

Mine production: 200 MT 

Portugal produces much less lithium than the five countries ahead of it on this list. Last year, it put out 200 MT of the metal, down 100 MT from 2015. Most of the country’s lithium comes from the Goncalo aplite-pegmatite field.

7. Brazil

Mine production: 200 MT

Brazil’s lithium production stayed constant, coming in at 200 MT in 2015 and 2016. While lithium reserves in Brazil are small, the country does have deposits in the Minas Gerais and Ceara areas.

8. United States

Mine production: unknown

Last but not least on the top lithium-producing countries list is the US. While its mine production is unknown, lithium mining in the US is growing rapidly, particularly in the Clayton Valley. The valley hosts the only producing lithium brine operation in the US — the Silver Peak mine — which is controlled by Rockwood Lithium and was acquired by Albemarle in 2015.

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Resource for real-time news updates.

Securities Disclosure: I, Jocelyn Aspa, hold no direct investment interest in any company mentioned in this article.

This article is updated each year. Please scroll to the top for the most recent information.

The lithium market continues to grow at a rapid pace, and 2015 was no exception for the top lithium-producing countries. While prices for many other metals and energy commodities felt significant pressure last year, lithium prices have been on a tear.

Continued developments from Tesla Motors (NASDAQ:TSLA) stoked further interest in the mineral, although that’s not the only reason for lithium’s success.

Despite accounting for only a fraction of lithium demand worldwide, Tesla has contributed to plenty of excitement in the junior lithium space, encouraging more and more junior mining companies to switch to lithium.

Given the growing importance of energy metals and lithium-ion batteries, securing a consistent supply of lithium is a top priority for technology companies around the world. Lithium’s uses extend far beyond rechargeable batteries, but many predict that this application will dominate demand for the metal in coming years.

Here’s a look at the top lithium-producing countries, as per 2015 data reported by the US Geological Survey (USGS). This article will be updated when new information becomes available.

1. Australia

Mine production: 13,400 MT

First on the top lithium-producing countries is Australia. In 2015, Australian mines delivered 13,400 metric tons (MT) of lithium, an increase of 100 tons from the year prior. The country is home to the Greenbushes lithium project, which is owned and operated by Talison Lithium, a subsidiary jointly owned by China’s Tianqi Group and US based Albemarle (NYSE:ALB).

Greenbushes is the world’s largest known single lithium reserve, and has been operational for over 25 years. The location is a boon to lithium producers, as it provides relatively easy access for Asian electronics companies, which are the world’s top lithium consumers.

Australia holds roughly 1.5 million MT of lithium reserves, according to the USGS. It’s worth noting that much of Australia’s mined production is exported to China in the form of hard-rock spodumene, where it is then further processed into end products such as lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide.

2. Chile

Mine production: 12,900 MT

Chile provided the second-highest amount of lithium last year, upping its production from 11,500 MT in 2014 to 11,700 MT last year. Overall, Chilean mines feature the largest confirmed lithium reserves in the world, with over 7,500,000 MT of lithium. By that estimate, the country hosts roughly five times more lithium than Australia, which features the second-largest reserves.

In particular, the Atacama salt flat is the most significant source of Chile’s massive lithium production. BBC News reported that one project alone encompasses approximately 20 percent of the world’s total lithium. While Australia extracts lithium from traditional hard-rock mines, Chile’s lithium is found in brines below the surface of salt flats.

These brines are collected and treated in order to separate the lithium from wastewater. The region is extremely arid, making it conducive to lithium extraction via evaporation ponds.

3. Argentina

Mine production: 3,800 MT

Argentina increased its lithium production by 600 MT in 2015 to overtake China as the world’s third largest lithium-producing country. Of note, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile comprise the “lithium triangle.” Argentina benefits from the same geological conditions that created the lithium-rich salt flats that fuel Chilean lithium production.

The most important salt flat in Argentina is the Salar del Hombre Muerto. While the high lithium content of this area is well documented, projects are still in development.

Meanwhile, the election of Mauricio Macri in Argentina has brought a political shift that is expected to be a win for the mining industry in the country.

4. China

Mine production: 2,200 MT

Fourth on the top lithium-producing countries is China, although it trailed behind in terms of mined production. In 2015, China put out just 2,300 MT of lithium. That represents a drop of 100 MT of production from 2015.

The country’s massive electronics manufacturing industry means that China is also the world’s largest consumer of lithium. However, China’s lithium industry has yet to fully ramp up lithium extraction. The majority of Chinese lithium has come from the Chang Tang plain in Western Tibet.

That said, the country is rushing to develop its lithium production capacity, and has plenty of room to grow. The USGS pegs the country’s lithium reserves at 3,500,000 tons.

For now, China gets much of its raw lithium supply from Australia. That system is working well so far; Chinese companies Sichuan Tianqi Lithium and Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium are two of the top producers of lithium products worldwide.

5. Zimbabwe

Mine production: 900 MT

Zimbabwe’s lithium output held steady from 2014, with the country putting out 900 MT of the mineral in 2015. Privately-held Bikita Minerals controls nearly all of the country’s lithium mining.

6. Portugal

Mine production: 300 MT

While Portugal put out significantly less lithium than the other countries on this list, it remains a major player in the lithium industry. Overall, the country produced 300 tons of lithium last year.

The majority of the country’s known lithium stores are centrally located in the Goncalo aplite-pegmatite field. There are other areas of the country that may contain large amounts of lithium, but further exploration will be required to determine whether these deposits could be developed economically.

7. Brazil

Mine production: 160 MT

Similarly, Brazil contributed 160 tons of lithium to global output in both 2014 and 2015. The country has deposits of the mineral in a few northern areas, including Minas Gerais and Ceara However, Brazil’s known lithium reserves remain relatively small.

8. United States

Mine production: undisclosed

Rounding out the top lithium-producing countries for 2015 is the United States. The US is home to a single lithium mine controlled by Rockwood Holdings, which was acquired by Albemarle in 2015. The brine operation is located in Nevada, and accounts for all of the country’s lithium output. The US Geological Survey does not release national production numbers to protect the company’s trade secrets.

Nevada has become a hot spot for lithium, and in particular the Clayton Valley, more of which can be read here.

Don’t forget to follow us @INN_Resource for real-time news updates.

This article was originally published on the Investing News Network in 2016.

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  • You seem to be unaware of the huge lithium deposit in Sonara, Mexico. This is owned by a consortium including Bancora Minerals and Rare Earth Minerals. There are good road and rail links to the United States.

    • Bacanora is developing a mine using unproven technology from a source (clay) that has not provided any lithium into the global market. From company that has not put out a single kg into the global market from any other source either. Good luck with that,

  • Julio F.

    I would be interested in buying stock of a Mexican lithium producer

  • which companys in Nevada has produced lithium? Not interested in companys that havent found Lithium yet

  • I am a Geologist working on Gonçalo mine inside central Portugal.
    I am at your disposal for exchange of ideas on this lithium production.

  • I just want to know, is Tawana resources near the players mentioned in the article. It is listed in South Africa on the JSE?

    • Tawana is dual listed in South Africa and in Australia. It also has two lithium projects in play – Bald Hill in Australia which is planned to begin producing in Dec 17, and Uis in Namibia which is in early days, but low capex and looks to start late 18.

  • I am a geologist and I work in Pegmatito with lepidolite in Gonçalo, in the interior center of Portugal and I think that the production of “concentrated lepidolite” will grow very soon in Portugal.

  • Good day.We are a Geological consulting organisation that ha just started looking at Lithium Deposits in Zimbabwe. We have access to historical data and information that we would like to put together with new information, including geological mapping and sampling as part of a Desktop study to inform investment strategy going forward and we are looking for international partners willing to fund some of the work in partnership with us. If interested please contact


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